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Jan 30, 2024

Astrology and its Evolution

Written by

Vikram Labhe



Astrology and its Evolution

The Evolution of Astrology: A Journey through Time

Astrology, the ancient practice of studying celestial bodies' positions and movements to gain insights into human affairs and natural phenomena, has a rich and diverse history spanning thousands of years. Rooted in the belief that the cosmos influences life on Earth, astrology has evolved through various cultures and civilizations. This exploration will delve into the history of astrology, tracing its origins, development, and transformation across different societies.

Ancient Roots

Mesopotamian Beginnings (circa 2nd millennium BCE)

Astrology finds its earliest roots in Mesopotamia, where the Babylonians first developed the zodiac and divided the sky into twelve segments, each associated with a specific constellation. The Babylonians linked these constellations to their agricultural calendar, marking the beginnings of astrological observations.

Egyptian Contributions (circa 4th millennium BCE)

In ancient Egypt, astrology played a crucial role in religious and political life. The alignment of the pyramids with specific celestial bodies showcases the Egyptians' early interest in astrological phenomena, viewing them as symbols of divine intervention and guidance.

Greco-Roman Period

Hellenistic Astrology (3rd century BCE – 4th century CE)

The Hellenistic period marked a significant phase in astrology's development, blending Babylonian and Egyptian traditions with Greek philosophical thought. Astrology became more systematised during this time, with the introduction of horoscopic astrology, where an individual's personality and destiny were determined by the positions of the planets at their time of birth.

Ptolemaic Influence

Claudius Ptolemy, a Greek astronomer and astrologer in the 2nd century CE, furthered the systematisation of astrology. His work Tetrabiblos became a cornerstone for Western astrological traditions, outlining principles still used today, such as the zodiacal signs, houses, and planetary aspects.

Medieval and Renaissance Periods

Islamic Golden Age (8th century – 14th century)

During the Islamic Golden Age, Persian and Arab scholars translated Greek and Roman astrological texts, preserving and expanding astrological knowledge. Influential figures like Al-Kindi and Abu Ma'shar made significant contributions, shaping astrology's evolution.

Astrology in Mediaeval Europe

Astrology gained prominence in mediaeval Europe, where it became intertwined with religious and political matters. Monarchs sought astrological advice, and universities offered courses in the subject. The works of mediaeval astrologers like Guido Bonatti and William Lilly reflect the era's reliance on astrology for decision-making.

The Renaissance and the Scientific Revolution (14th century – 17th century)

Humanism and Hermeticism

The Renaissance saw a resurgence of interest in classical knowledge, including astrology. Humanist scholars rediscovered ancient texts, and Hermeticism influenced the esoteric aspects of astrology, connecting celestial movements with spiritual insights.

Scientific Critique

As the Scientific Revolution unfolded, figures like Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei challenged traditional astrological beliefs. The heliocentric model and empirical observations shifted the focus from astrological explanations to scientific principles, leading to a gradual decline in astrology's credibility among scholars.

Modern Astrology (18th century – present)

Revival in the 19th Century

The 19th century witnessed a resurgence of interest in astrology, fueled by spiritual and occult movements. Astrologers like Alan Leo and Evangeline Adams popularised astrology, adapting it to contemporary beliefs and making it accessible to a broader audience.

Psychological Astrology

In the 20th century, astrology underwent further transformations with the emergence of psychological astrology. Pioneered by figures like Carl Jung, psychological astrology shifted the focus from predictive aspects to a tool for self-reflection and personal growth.

Contemporary Astrology

Popularisation and Criticism

Astrology has become a mainstream phenomenon in contemporary society, with horoscopes appearing in newspapers, magazines, and online platforms. While embraced by many, astrology faces criticism from sceptics who dismiss it as pseudoscience.

Diversity and Cultural Adaptation

Astrology has adapted to diverse cultural contexts, incorporating elements from Eastern traditions and indigenous practices. This inclusivity has contributed to its continued relevance and popularity across the globe.

Technological Advancements

The advent of the internet and digital technologies revolutionised astrology. Online platforms and software made astrological information more accessible, allowing individuals to generate personalised birth charts and explore astrological insights easily.

Psychological and Humanistic Approaches

Modern astrologers often emphasise psychological and humanistic perspectives, exploring the symbolic and archetypal dimensions of astrological symbols. This shift aligns with contemporary views on self-discovery and personal development.

Vedic Astrology

Now that we have looked into the evolution of astrology in general, let us take a look at the history and evolution of Vedic astrology. Also known as Jyotish, this ancient system of astrology originated in India thousands of years ago. It is deeply rooted in the Vedic scriptures, particularly the Vedas, which are ancient sacred texts that form the foundation of Hindu philosophy and spirituality. The history of Vedic astrology is rich and multifaceted, reflecting the cultural, religious, and scientific developments of the Indian subcontinent over the centuries. In this comprehensive exploration, we will delve into the origins of Vedic astrology and trace its evolution through different historical periods.

Origins of Vedic Astrology

The roots of Vedic astrology can be traced back to the Vedas, the oldest and most revered texts of ancient India. The Rigveda, one of the four Vedas, contains hymns that reference astronomical and astrological concepts. The term "Jyotish" itself is derived from the Sanskrit word "Jyoti," meaning light or heavenly body. This reflects the central role played by celestial bodies, particularly the Sun and the Moon, in Vedic astrology.

Early Development and Manuscripts

The early development of Vedic astrology is marked by the compilation of several texts that laid the foundation for astrological principles and practices. One of the earliest works is the Vedanga Jyotisha, a Vedic text that provides guidelines for the timing of rituals and sacrifices based on astronomical calculations. Another significant contribution comes from the Brihat Parashara Hora Shastra, attributed to the sage Parashara, which serves as a comprehensive manual on astrology. These texts established the fundamental principles of Vedic astrology, including the significance of the zodiac, planets, and houses.

Influence of Greek and Persian Traditions

During the Hellenistic period, there was an exchange of knowledge between the Indian subcontinent and the Greek and Persian civilizations. This interaction had a profound impact on Vedic astrology, leading to the integration of Greek and Persian astrological concepts. The Yavana Jataka, a Sanskrit text influenced by Greek astrology, exemplifies this synthesis. The Yavana Jataka introduced the concept of horoscopic astrology, where individual birth charts are created based on the positions of celestial bodies at the time of birth.

Mediaeval Period and Persian Influence

The mediaeval period saw the flourishing of Vedic astrology under the patronage of various Indian dynasties. Persian and Islamic scholars also played a significant role in preserving and furthering astrological knowledge. The mediaeval Indian astrologer Varahamihira, in his monumental work Brihat Samhita, integrated Vedic and Hellenistic astrological traditions. This period witnessed the refinement of astrological techniques, including the use of dashas (planetary periods) and the development of predictive astrology.

Colonial Period — An Era of Decline

With the advent of colonial rule in India, Vedic astrology faced challenges from Western scientific rationalism. The British East India Company discouraged traditional practices, including astrology, and promoted Western education. This led to a decline in the study and practice of Vedic astrology. However, despite external pressures, the tradition continued to survive in rural areas and among traditional communities.

Revival in the 20th Century

The 20th century witnessed a revival of interest in Vedic astrology, fueled by the efforts of scholars and practitioners to preserve and promote traditional knowledge. Pundit K. S. Krishnamurti developed the Krishnamurti Paddhati (KP), a simplified and more accessible form of astrology. In the mid-20th century, B. V. Raman, a prominent astrologer, contributed to the resurgence of Vedic astrology by establishing the Indian Council of Astrological Sciences (ICAS).

Modern Trends and Globalization

In recent decades, Vedic astrology has experienced a global resurgence, gaining popularity beyond the Indian subcontinent. The advent of the internet has facilitated the exchange of astrological knowledge, leading to a broader audience and diverse perspectives. Many practitioners offer online consultations, and there is a growing interest in integrating Vedic astrology with other spiritual and healing practices.

Controversies and Criticisms

Despite its popularity, Vedic astrology has faced criticism from sceptics and rationalists who question its scientific basis. Some argue that astrological predictions lack empirical evidence and are based on subjective interpretations. However, proponents of Vedic astrology contend that its value lies in its holistic approach to understanding the individual's connection with the cosmos and the subtle energies at play.


The history of astrology is a tapestry woven with threads from ancient civilizations, classical periods, and modern eras. Its evolution reflects humanity's enduring fascination with the cosmos and the enduring quest to understand the interconnectedness between celestial patterns and earthly events. Whether viewed through a lens of divination, psychology, or personal exploration, astrology remains a dynamic and enduring facet of human civilization, evolving with the times while retaining its intrinsic connection to the cosmos. From its roots in the Vedas to the mediaeval synthesis with Greek and Persian traditions, and the challenges faced during the colonial period, Vedic astrology has endured and evolved. Its revival in the 20th century and subsequent globalisation highlight its continued relevance in the modern world. Whether regarded as a profound science or a cultural artefact, Vedic astrology remains a fascinating subject that reflects the enduring human quest to understand the cosmos and our place within it.


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